Contacts Centre for Environmental Biology


Assistant Professor

CBA research group(s):

Biotic-Abiotic Interactions

Personal webpage

Team webpage

Francisco Carrapiço

Main Research Interests

My main research interests are Azolla-Anabaena-bacteria symbiotic system; symbiomics; origin of life and cell evolution.


Academic Qualifications

- PhD in Cell Biology (University of Lisbon)

Recent Publications

Costa P.M., Carrapiço F., Alves de Matos A.P. & Costa M.H., 2013. A microscopical study of the complex “chlorophylloid” pigment cells of the marine polychaete Eulalia viridis (L.). Microscopy and Microanalysis 19(Suppl 4):15-16.

Carrapiço F., Santos R. & Serrano A. 2011. First occurrence of Stenonopelmus rufinasus Gyllenhal, 1835 (Coleoptera: Erirhinidae) in Portugal. The Coleopterists Bulletin 65(4):436-437.

Pereira A.L., Martins M., Oliveira M.M. & Carrapiço F. 2011. Morphological and genetic diversity of the family Azollaceae inferred from vegetative charcters and RAPD Markers. Plant systematics ad Evolution 297(3-4):213-226.

Santos R. & Carrapiço F. 2011. Frank Ryan, Virolution (Book Review). Symbiosis 53:97-100.

Carrapiço F. 2010. Azolla as a superorganism. Its implication in the symbiotic studies. In “Symbioses and Stress: Joints Ventures in Biology”, Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology 17, pp. 225–241, Seckbach J. and Grube M. (eds), Springer Science.

Gontier N., Carrapiço F., Pina M., Levy A. & Abreu H. (guest eds.) 2010. Darwin evaluated by contemporary evolutionary and philosophical theories. Double special issue of Theory in Biosciences, vol. 126, numbers 2-3.

Carrapiço F. 2010. How symbiogenic is evolution?. Theory in Biosciences 129(2-3):135-139.

Costa M.L, Santos M.C.R., Carrapiço F. & Pereira A.L. 2009. Azolla-Anabaena’s behaviour in urban wastewater and artificial media - influence of combined nitrogen. Water Research 43:3743-3750.

Pereira A. L. & Carrapiço F. 2009. Culture of Azolla filiculoides in artificial conditions. Plant Biosystems 143(3):431-434.

Pereira A.L., Figueiredo A.C., Barroso J.M., Pedro L.G. & Carrapiço F. 2009. Volatile compounds from the symbiotic system Azolla filiculoides-Anabaena azollae-bacteria. Plant Biosystems 143(2):268–274.

Carrapiço F. & Rita O. 2009. Simbiogénese e Evolução. In: Evolução. Conceitos e Debates. Levy A., Carrapiço F., Abreu H. & Pina M. (Eds). Esfera do Caos, Lisboa, pp.175-198. ISBN: 978-989-8025-75-3.

Pereira A.L. & Carrapiço F. 2007. Histochemistry of simple hairs from the foliar cavities of Azolla filiculoides. Plant Biosystems 141:323-328.

Pereira A. L., Teixeira G., Sevinate-Pinto I., Antunes T. & Carrapiço F. 2001. Taxonomic re-evaluation of the Azolla genus in Portugal. Plant Biosystems, 135 (3):285-294.

Serrano R., Carrapiço F. & Vidal R. 1999. The presence of lectins in bacteria associated with the Azolla-Anabaena symbiosis. Symbiosis 27(2):169-178.

Carrapiço F. 1991. Are bacteria the third partner of the Azolla-Anabaena symbiosis? Plant and Soil 137:157-160.


Ongoing Projects

  • Darwin Azolla - Paleoecology and biogeochemistry of the freshwater fern Azolla and its importance in global biogeochemical cycles (Utrecht University, Holland)
  • Scientific consultancy fot the project “How to convert a rice field in green fertilizer factory”, ESPOL-World Bank, Ecuador (2008-2010).
  • “Estudios sobre los crescimientos masivos de Azolla sp en el embalse de Cedillo”, URS España,
  • Scientific and technical consultancy for ARH do Tejo, I.P.


Other Information

Co-operation with industry for the use of Azolla as biofilter for treating water and industrial waste.

Astrobiology and education.