Contacts Centre for Environmental Biology


PhD, Academics

CBA coordinator

CBA research group(s):

Animal Diversity
& Conservation

Personal webpage

Team webpage

Margarida Santos-Reis

Main Research Interests

My main domain of interest is conservation ecology, with an emphasis on mammals (particularly carnivores). However, along the years my interests have expanded to themes more inter-disciplinary such as human-wildlife conflict, sustainability of the cork-oak ecosystem, conservation of Mediterranean landscapes, landscape genetics, and ecosystem services.


Academic Qualifications

- 2007 – Habilitation in Animal Biology (University of Lisbon)

- 1990 - PhD in Biosystematics and Ecology (University of Lisbon)

- 1979 - 5-year college graduation in Biology (Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon)


Recent Publications.

Moreira F.D., Ascensão F., Capinha C., Rodrigues D., Segurado P., Santos-Reis M. & Rebelo R. 2014. Modelling the risk of invasion by the red-swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii): incorporating local variables to better inform management decisions. Biological Invasions [online first DOI 10.1007/s10530-014-0725-y].

Duarte A., Marques V., Duarte Correia J.H., Neto I., São Bráz B., Rodrigues C., Martins T., Rosado R., Ferreira J.P., Santos-Reis M. & Tavares L. 2014. Molecular detection of haemotropic Mycoplasma in urban and rural cats from Portugal. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery [On-line first DOI: 10.1177/1098612X14550172].

Pedroso N.M., Sales-Luís T. & Santos-Reis M. 2014. The Eurasian otter Lutra lutra (Linnaeus, 1758) in Portugal. Ruiz, A., López de Luzuriaga, J., Rubines, J. (Eds). Conservation and management of semi-aquatic mammals in southwestern Europe. Munibe Monographs, Nature Series. 3: 133-144. Aranzadi Society of Sciences. San Sebastian.

Palmeirim A.F., de Souza Leite M., Santos-Reis M. & Fernandez F.A. 2014. Habitat selection for resting sites by the water opossum (Chironectes minimus) in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 49(3):231-238.

Rodrigues D.C., Simões L., Mullins J., Lampa S., Mendes R.C., Fernandes C., Rebelo R. & Santos-Reis M. 2014. Tracking the expansion of the American mink (Neovison vison) range in NW Portugal. Biological Invasions 1-10.

Pedroso N.M., Marques T.A. & Santos-Reis M. 2014. The response of otters to environmental changes imposed by the construction of large dams. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 24(1):66–80.

Ascensão F., Grilo C., LaPoint S., Tracey J., Clevenger A.P. & Santos-Reis M. 2014. Inter-individual variability of stone marten behavioral responses to a highway. PLoS one 9(7):e103544.

Dick J., Al-Assaf A., Andrews C., Díaz-Delgado R., Groner E., Halada L., Izakovicova Z., Kertész M., Khoury F., Krašić D., Krauze K., Matteucci G., Melecis V., Mirtl M., Orenstein D.E., Preda E., Santos-Reis M., Smith R.I., Vadineanu A., Veselić S. & Vihervaara P. 2014. Ecosystem services: a rapid assessment method tested at 35 sites of the LTER-Europe network. Ekologia 33(3):217-231.

Ascensão F., Clevenger A., Santos-Reis M., Urbano P. & Jackson N. 2013. Wildlife–vehicle collision mitigation: Is partial fencing the answer? An agent-based model approach. Ecological Modelling 257:36-43.

Costa M., Fernandes C., Birk, J.D.S., Kitchener A.C., Santos-Reis M. & Bruford W. 2013. The genetic legacy of the 19th-century decline of the British polecat: evidence for extensive introgression from feral ferrets. Molecular Ecology 22(20):5130-5147.

Rosalino L.M., Nóbrega F., Santos-Reis M., Teixeira G. & Rebelo R. 2013. Acorn selection by the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus: a semi-controlledeExperiment in a Mediterranean environment. Zoological Science 30(9):724-730.

Serronha A.M., Mateus A.R.V., Eaton F., Santos-Reis M. & Grilo C. 2013. Towards effective culvert design: monitoring seasonal use and behavior by Mediterranean mesocarnivores. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 185(8):6235-6246.

Villalva P., Reto D., Santos-Reis M., Revilla E. & Grilo C. 2013. Do dry ledges reduce the barrier effect of roads? Ecological Engineering 57:143-148.

Ascensão F., Clevenger A.P., Grilo C., Filipe J. & Santos-Reis M. 2012. Highway verges as habitat providers for small mammals in agrosilvopastoral environments. Biodiversity and Conservation 21(14):3681-3697.

Costa M., Fernandes C., Rodrigues M., Santos-Reis M. & Bruford M.W. 2012. A panel of microsatellite markers for genetic studies of European polecats (Mustela putorius) and ferrets (Mustela furo). European Journal of Wildlife Research 58:629-633.

Gonçalves P., Alcobia S., Simões L. & Santos-Reis M. 2012. Effects of management options on mammal richness in a Mediterranean agro-silvo-pastoral system. Agroforestry Systems 85(3):383-395.

Grilo C., Sousa J., Ascensão F., Matos H., Leitão I., Pinheiro P., Costa M., Bernardo J., Reto D., Lourenço R., Santos-Reis M. & Revilla E. 2012. Individual spatial responses towards roads: implications for mortality risk. Plos One 7(9):e43811.

Rodrigues M., Santos-Reis M., Elmeros M. & Fernandes C. 2012. First set of microsatellite markers for genetic studies in the weasel (Mustela nivalis). European Journal of Wildlife Research 58:507-510.

Sales-Luís T., Bissonette J.A. & Santos-Reis M. 2012. Conservation of Mediterranean otters: the influence of map scale resolution. Biodiversity and Conservation 21(8):2061-2073.

Basto M., Pedroso N.M., Mira A. & Santos-Reis M. 2011. Use of small and medium-sized water reservoirs by otters in a Mediterranean ecosystem. Animal Biology 61(1):75-94.

Ferreira J.P., Leitão I., Santos-Reis M. & Revilla E. 2011. Human-related factors regulate the spatial ecology of domestic cats in sensitive areas for conservation. Plos One 6(10):e25970.

Grilo C., Ascensão F., Santos-Reis M. & Bissonette J.A. 2011. Do well-connected landscapes promote road-related mortality? European Journal of Wildlife Research 57(4):707-716.

Mateus A.R., Grilo C. & Santos-Reis M. 2011. Surveying drainage culvert use by carnivores: sampling design and cost-benefit analyzes of track-pads vs. video-surveillance methods. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 181(1-4):101-109.

Rodriguez-Refojos C., Zuberogoitia I., Rosalino L.M., Zabala J., Santos M.J., Santos-Reis M. & Camps D. 2011. Geographical and sexual differences in body size of common genets, Genetta genetta (Viverridae, Carnivora), in south-western Europe (Iberian Peninsula). Folia Zoologica 60(1):53-61.

Rosalino L.M., Ferreira D., Leitão I., & Santos-Reis M. 2011. Selection of nest sites by wood mice Apodemus sylvaticus in a Mediterranean agro-forest landscape. Ecological Research 26(2):445-452.

Rosalino L.M., Ferreira,D., Leitão I. & Santos-Reis M. 2011. Usage patterns of different Mediterranean agro-forest habitat components by Wood mice Apodemus sylvaticus. European Journal of Wildlife Research 76(3):268–273.

Santos M.J., Matos H.M., Palomares F. & Santos-Reis M. 2011. Factors affecting mammalian carnivore use of riparian ecosystems in Mediterranean climates. Journal of Mammalogy 92(5):1060-1069.

Santos-Silva M.M., Beati L., Santos A.S., De Sousa R., Núncio M.S., Melo P., Santos-Reis M., Fonseca C., Formosinho P., Vilela C. & Bacellar F. 2011. The hard-tick fauna of mainland Portugal (Acari: Ixodidae): an update on geographical distribution and known associations with hosts and pathogens. Experimental and Applied Acarology 55(1):85-121.

Basto M.P., Rodrigues M., Santos-Reis M., Bruford M.W. & Fernandes C.A. 2010. Isolation and characterization of 13 tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in the stone marten (Martes foina). Conservation Genetics Resources 2:317-319.

Mucci N., Arrendal J., Ansorge H., Bailey M., Bodner M., Delibes M., Ferrando A., Fournier P., Fournier C., Godoy J.A., Hajkova P., Hauer S., Heggberget T.M., Heidecke D., Kirjavainen H., Krueger H., Kvaloy K., Lafontaine L., Lanszki J., Lemarchand C., Liukko U.M., Loeschcke V., Ludwig G., Madsen A.B., Mercier L., Ozolins J., Paunovic M., Pertoldi C., Piriz A., Prigioni C., Santos-Reis M., Sales Luís, T., Stjernberg T., Schmid H., Suchentrunk F., Teubner J., Tornberg R., Zinke O. & Randi E. 2010. Genetic diversity and landscape genetic structure of otter (Lutra lutra) populations in Europe. Conservation Genetics 11:583-599.

Oliveira M., Pedroso N.M., Sales-Luís T., Santos-Reis M., Tavares L. & Lobo Vilela C. 2010. Antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella isolated from Eurasian Otters (Lutra lutra Linnaeus, 1758) in Portugal. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 46(4):1257-1261.

Rosalino L.M., Rosa S. & Santos-Reis M. 2010. The role of carnivores as Mediterranean seed dispersers. Annales Zoologici Fennici 47(3):195–205.

Santos M. J. & Santos-Reis M. 2010. Stone marten (Martes foina) habitat in a Mediterranean ecosystem: effects of scale, sex, and interspecific interactions. European Journal of Wildlife Research 56(3):275–286.

Beja P., Gordinho L., Reino L., Loureiro F., Santos-Reis M. & Borralho R. 2009. Predator abundance in relation to small game management in southern Portugal: conservation implications. European Journal of Wildlife Research 55:227-238.

Fernandes C.A., Rodrigues M., Hajji G., Vercammen P., Bruford M. W. & Santos-Reis M. 2009. Isolation and characterisation of 11 tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in the common genet (Genetta genetta). Conservation Genetics 10:1931-1934.

Grilo C., Bissonette J., & Santos-Reis M. 2009. Spatial-temporal patterns in Mediterranean carnivore road casualties: consequences for mitigation. Biological Conservation 142(2):301-313.

Loureiro F., Bissonette J.A., Macdonald D.W. & Santos-Reis M. 2009. Temporal variation in the availability of Mediterranean food resources: Do badgers Meles meles track them? Wildlife Biology 15:1-10.

Matos H., Santos M.J., Palomares F. & Santos-Reis M. 2009. Does riparian habitat condition influence mammalian carnivore abundance in Mediterranean ecosystems. Biodiversity and Conservation 23(3):285-299.

Rodrigues M., Fernandes C. A., Palomares F., Amorim I. R., Bruford M.W. & Santos-Reis M. 2009. Isolation and characterization of 11 tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in the Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon). Molecular Ecology Resources (Formerly Molecular Ecology Notes) 9(4):1205-1208.

Rosalino L.M. & Santos-Reis M. 2009. Fruit consumption by carnivores in Mediterranean Europe. Mammal Review 39(1):67-78.

Rosalino L.M., Rosário, J. & Santos-Reis M. 2009. The role of habitat patches on mammalian diversity in cork oak agroforestry systems. Acta Oecologica-International Journal of Ecology 35:507-512.

Rosalino L.M., Santos M.J., Pereira I. & Santos-Reis M. 2009. Sex-driven differences in Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon) diet in its north-western European range. European Journal of Wildlife Research 55:293-299.

Sales-Luís T., Freitas D. & Santos-Reis M. 2009. Key landscape factors for Eurasian otter Lutra lutra visiting rates and fish loss in estuarine fish farms. European Journal of Wildlife Research 55:345-355.

Santos M.J., Matos H., Baltazar C., Grilo C. & Santos-Reis M. 2009. Is polecat (Mustela putorius) affected by "mediterraneity"? Mammalian Biology 74:448-455.

Fernandes C.A., Ginja C., Pereira I., Tenreiro R., Bruford M.W. & Santos-Reis M. 2008. Species-specific mitochondrial DNA markers for identification of non-invasive samples from sympatric carnivores in the Iberian Península. Conservation Genetics 9(3):681-690.

Grilo C., Bissonette J.A. & Santos-Reis M. 2008. Response of carnivores to existing highway culverts and underpasses: implications for road planning and mitigation. Biodiversity and Conservation 17(7):1685-1699.

Koepfli K.-P., Kanchanasaka B., Sasaki H., Jaques H., Louie K.D.Y., Hoai T., Dang N.X., Geffen E., Gutleb A., Sung-Yong H., Heggeberget T.M., Lafontaine L., Lee H., Melisch R., Ruiz-Olmo J., Santos-Reis M., Sidorovich V.E., Stubbe M. & Wayne R.K. 2008. Establishing a foundation for an applied molecular taxonomy of otters in Southeast Asia. Conservation Genetics 9:1589-1604.

Oliveira M., Sales-Luís T., Duarte A., Nunes S.F., Carneiro C., Tenreiro R., Tenreiro T., Santos-Reis M., Tavares L. & Vilela C.L. 2008. First assessment of microbial diversity in faecal microflora of Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra Linnaeus, 1758) in Portugal. European Journal of Wildlife Research 54(2):245-252.

Rosalino L.M., Santos M.J., Beier P. & Santos-Reis M. 2008. Eurasian badger habitat selection in Mediterranean environments: does scale really matter? Mammalian Biology 73(3):189-198.

Santos M.J., Pedroso N.M., Ferreira J.P., Matos H.M., Sales-Luís T., Pereira I., Baltazar C., Grilo C., Cândido A.T., Sousa I. & Santos-Reis M. 2008. Assessing dam implementation impact on threatened carnivores: the case of Alqueva in SE Portugal. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 142(1-3):47-64.

Espírito-Santo C., Rosalino L.M. & Santos-Reis M. 2007. Factors affecting the placement of common genet latrine sites in a landscape in Portugal. Journal of Mammalogy 88(1):201-207.

Freitas D., Gomes J., Sales Luís T., Madruga L., Marques C., Baptista G., Rosalino L.M., Antunes P., Santos R. & Santos-Reis M. 2007. Otters and fish farms in the Sado Estuary: ecological and socio-economic basis of a conflict. Hydrobiologia 587:51-62.

Loureiro F., Rosalino L.M., Macdonald D.W. & Santos-Reis M. 2007. Path tortuosity of Eurasian badger (Meles meles) in a heterogeneous Mediterranean landscape. Ecological Research 22(5):837-844.

Loureiro F., Rosalino L.M., Macdonald D.W. & Santos-Reis M. 2007. The use of multiple den sites by Eurasian badgers, Meles meles, in a Mediterranean habitat. Zoological Science 24:978-985.

Marques C., Rosalino L.M. & Santos-Reis M. 2007. Otter predation in a trout fish farm of central-east Portugal: preference for "fast-food"? River Research and Applications 23:1147-1153.

Pedroso N.M., Sales-Luís T. & Santos-Reis M. 2007. Use of Aguieira dam by Eurasian otters in Central Portugal. Folia Zoologica 56(4):365-377.

Rosalino L.M., Rodrigues M., Santos-Silva M. & Santos-Reis M. 2007. Unusual findings on host-tick interactions through carnivore scat analysis. Experimental and Applied Acarology 43:293-302.

Sales-Luís T., Pedroso N.M. & Santos-Reis M. 2007. Prey availability and diet of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) on a large reservoir and associated tributaries. Canadian Journal of Zoology- Revue Canadienne de Zoologie 85:1125-1135.


Ongoing Projects


  • Patterns of mammal diversity and abundance: response to multi-use and management pratices (Contract funded by Companhia das Lezírias S.A.) Initiated in 2007.

  • LTER Montado - Long-term socioecological research and monitoring in a Mediterranean cultural landscape. Contract funded FCT (LTER/BIA-BEC/0048/2009). Initiated in 2011.


  • OPERA - Operational Potential of Ecosystems Research Applications (FP7-ENV-2012-308393-2). Initiated in 2013.

  • GREENSURGE - Green infrastructure and urban biodiversity for sustainable urban development and the green economy (FP7-ENV-2013-two-stage). Initiated in 2013.


Other Information

2009 to present  - Scientific Coordinator of the Centro de Biologia Ambiental, R&D Unit of Lisbon University

2008 to present - National Representative of LTER Portugal Network at ILTER (International Long-Term Ecology Network)

2010 to present – Member of the Biodiversity Executive Committee (UNESCO Portugal)

1999 to present - National Representative of the UICN Species Survival Otter Specialist Group

2003 to present - Vice President of the Portuguese Ecological Society

1985 to present - President of the General Assembly of GRUPO LOBO Portuguese Association for the Study and Conservation of the Iberian Wolf and its Ecosystem